North American Indian Historical Sites

North American Indian Historical Sites

Mounds, Pyramids, Related National and State Parks

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    Welcome to the U.S. National Parks Net
    “This site is dedicated
    to providing information on all U.S. National Parks It is our
    intent to provide information that will be timely and of assistance
    in planning a trip, vacation or obtaining data about a park.”

    National Park Service Archeology & Ethnography Program

    Ancient Architects of the Mississippi” The National Park Service is steward of a diverse cultural legacy. From the cliff dwellings of the Southwest
    to the reminiscences of neighborhood residents where Martin Luther King, Jr. grew up, this legacy represents
    a continuum of American heritage–its places, objects, and traditions. The NPS archeology and ethnography
    program provides national leadership, coordination, and technical guidance to aid in preserving this heritage.

    Mystery of the Mound Matrix
    Archaeological Survey
    Report, Prepared by Ronald J. Pastore – Director Cave
    Springs Foundation, Inc. “Evidence suggests mound builders
    of North American placed Temples at locations that form an
    interlocking grid matrix producing geometric patterns in
    the shape of five pointed stars.”


    Oakville Indian Mounds Museum & Park
    Located on County Road,
    in Lawrence County in Danville, Alabama “View the historical marker
    erected 1999 by the Lawrence County Historical Commission, under the
    auspices of President Virginia Walker and Board Chairman Ben Lee.”

    Online Highways
    ~ Visit
    Historical Eras
    , Online Highways’ interactive American History project. A
    team of researchers is developing site that will present U.S.
    history in the context of present day travel.

    • Oakville Indian Mounds Museum ~ Danville Alabama
      “Lawrence County is home to Alabama’s
      greatest Indian population. The Oakville Indian Mounds Park and Museum
      is a tribute to them and their ancestors. The historical site
      features a Copena burial mound, named for the copper and
      galena metals used by Indians of the period, and a 1.8-acre
      ceremonial mound believed to be the cultural center of the
      area’s Woodland Indians. The 8500 square feet museum, patterned
      after a Cherokee council house, has over 1000 artifacts, mostly
      from the surrounding area. The centerpiece of the museum is a
      14 feet high statue of Sequoyah, who created the Cherokee alphabet.
      The park’s annual Indian festival, in May of each year, offers an
      exciting panorama of Southeastern Native American culture, history and art.”

    • Shell Mound Park ~ Dauphin Island Alabama

    • Indian Mound and Museum ~ Florence, Alabama
      “This is one of the largest domiciliary Indian mounds in the
      Tennessee Valley. The pre-Columbian mound measures 43 feet high with a summit that is 145 feet by 94 feet.”

    • Chattahoochee Indian Heritage Center ~ Fort Mitchell, Alabama

      “Located in Fort Mitchell County Park, this center details the
      culture and history of the Indians who inhabited the valley.”

    Welcome to Horse Pens 40
    The South’s Best Kept Secret
    “Nestled in the Appalachian foothills near Steele, Alabama, is a natural wonder called Horse
    Pens 40. Natures hand has magically created a site that boasts majestic rock formations and
    impresive mountaintop vistas among acres of pristine forested woods, an area rich in history
    dating back to times when native American Indians laid claim to Alabama.”


    Everything Alaska
    Your On-Line Source For All Things Alaskan

    • Aurora Borealis
      ‘No description can describe the splendor or the magnificence of the
      natural phenomenon known as the Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis.
      The Northern lights have been described in ancient times by the
      Eskimos, American Indians, world explorers and even mentioned in the Old Testament.”

    • Totem Bight State Park, Ketchikan Alaska
      “A Tlingit
      myth tells that the people were inspired to carve totem
      poles after finding a carved log washed up on the beach.
      The Haida tell of a master carver who created a house
      front and several poles overnight and then taught the
      villagers how to carve.


    Rainbow Bridge National Monument
    “Rainbow Bridge is the world’s largest natural bridge. The span has undoubtedly inspired people throughout time–from
    the neighboring American Indian tribes who consider Rainbow Bridge sacred, to the 300,000 people from around the
    world who visit it each year. Please visit Rainbow Bridge in a spirit that honors and respects the cultures to whom it is
    sacred. While Rainbow Bridge is a separate unit of the National Park Service, it is proximate to and administered by Glen
    Canyon National Recreation Area. For additional information about services and facilities connected with Rainbow
    Bridge, visit Glen Canyon NRA’s Home Page.”

    • To Native American Indian Nations, Rainbow Bridge is sacred. Please respect these long-standing
      beliefs. We request your voluntary compliance in not approaching or walking under Rainbow
      Bridge. For more background on this subject, please
      visit ‘A New Day-Changes at Rainbow Bridge’.


    Rock Art In Arkansas
    “Arkansas possesses one of the richest concentrations of rock art in eastern
    North America. Human, animal, geometric, and abstract motifs are rendered in
    carved and pecked (petroglyph), painted (pictograph), and combination styles.
    These images provide fascinating glimpses of the world as viewed by Arkansas’
    former inhabitants.”
    Just for Kids – Series of short stories!


    Santa Monica Mountains ‘National Recreational Area’

    “For many years the Santa Monica Mountains sustained the Chumash and
    Gabrielino/Tongva cultures. Sycamore Canyon, which cuts through Rancho Sierra
    Vista/Satwiwa and Point Mugu State Park, was part of a Chumash trade route. Satwiwa,
    which means “the bluffs”, was the name of a nearby Chumash village. To reflect this
    heritage, a portion of Rancho Sierra Vista/Satwiwa is the Satwiwa Native American
    Indian Natural Area. The National Park Service, in cooperation with the
    Friends of Satwiwa (FOS),
    and UCLA have designed a culture center. A Native American Indian guest host
    or an NPS ranger is on hand to answer questions on Sundays from 10am to 5pm.”
    Rancho Sierra Vista


    Lake Jackson Mounds State Archaeological Site, Florida

    “The site was once a large ceremonial center dating back to the Fort Walton period of
    Florida’s history (1000 A.D.-1450 A.D.). Recent studies contributed greatly to
    increasing our understanding of the Indians of that period.”


    Ocmulgee National Monument ~ Macon, Georgia
    “The Monument today consists of two units
    separated by two miles of riverine wetlands along the Ocmulgee River. The
    Main Unit is adjacent to the city of Macon, an urban area with a population
    of 118,000. The isolated Lamar Mounds and Village Unit can be visited by
    special permit.”


    Dickson Mounds State Museum
    “Located in a rural area of West Central Illinois, near the
    Illinois River between the towns of Lewistown and Havana. It is 200 miles
    southwest of Chicago, 45 miles southwest of Peoria, and 60 miles
    northwest of Springfield.” (Site of 800-year-old burial mounds.
    Across the Illinois River in Fulton County. Rockwell Mound is the
    second largest Indian mound in the Midwest dates back 2,000 years
    Rockwell Park, Havana.) Dickson Mounds, Myer-Dickson Site,
    Eveland Village Site, The Ogden-Fettie Site, The Larson Site,
    The Rockwell Mound

    Illinois Historic Preservation Agency (IHPA)
    ~ Historic Sites

    • Cahokia Mounds Historic Site, Collinsville, Illinois
      “Cahokia (translated “wild geese”) derives its name from the Cahokia
      Indian tribe, who were members of the Illini Confederation. With their close relatives, the Tamaroas, the tribes inhabited a wooded
      strip of land near the Mississippi River. They gathered there in the
      summer for their councils, and in the winter they ranged the prairies
      on hunts. An early missionary at Cahokia recorded the size of the
      Indian village as ninety “cabins,” probably lodges that housed extended families.”

    • Black Hawk Site, Rock Island, Illinois
      “The Black Hawk site was first occupied by Indians as long as 12,000
      years ago, and it was continuously inhabited through the Hopewell
      period, ca. 100 B.C. to A.D. 250. Villagers lived within the bounds of the
      present historic site, and they built burial mounds along the bluffs
      above the river. Unfortunately, the mounds have been destroyed.”

    SIUE Cahokia Mounds Web Site ~ Collinsville, Illinois
    “Brought to you by Contract Archaeology of
    Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. This site’s purpose is to become
    the definitive source and repository of on-line information, virtual reality,
    photo albums, and discussion regarding the prehistoric Mississippian cultural
    center at Illinois’ Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site.”


    Angel Mounds State Historic Site
    “For over a thousand years, Southwestern Indiana was home to many Native
    Americans. Today, Angel Mounds State Historic Site is nationally recognized as one
    of the best preserved prehistoric Native American sites in the United States.”

      Friends of the Angel Mounds
      W. Brooks Martin, Executive Director
      “Friends of Angel Mounds is a not-for-profit, community organization created to promote development of
      and interest in Angel Mounds State Historic Site as an educational and historical facility.”

    Angel Mounds ~ State Historic Site
    “Five to seven hundred years ago,
    the area we now call Angel Mounds State Historic Site was a thriving
    Mississippian Indian town. Built between A.D. 1100 and 1300, the
    town was occupied by one thousand to three thousand inhabitants until
    its abandonment around 1450.” Evansville, Indiana


    Effigy Mounds National Monument
    “Established to preserve
    the earth mounds found in northeastern Iowa. Within the monument’s
    borders are 191 known prehistoric mounds, 29 in the form of bear
    and bird effigies and the remainder conical or linear shaped.
    Located five miles north of McGregor and three miles north of
    Marquette, Iowa on Iowa State Highway 76.”


    Cherokee Trail Of Tears Park
    Located In Hopkinsville. KY
    “This historic park is one of the few documented sites of actual trail and campsites
    used during the forced removal of the Cherokee people to “Indian Territory”. It was
    used as an encampment in 1838 and 1839. This park is the burial site for two
    Cherokee Chiefs who died during the removal – Fly Smith and Whitepath. This long,
    cruel relocation has become known as the “Trail Of Tears” and by Native Americans
    as “The Trail Where They Cried”. Every year on the first full weekend of September,
    the Trail Of Tears Commission sponsors an intertribal Pow Wow at the park.”

    Wickliffe Mounds Research Center

    “Kentucky site offers tours of these historic aboriginal
    mounds and the excavations associated with them. Wickliffe
    Mounds Research Center is located at 94 Green Street, Highway
    51/60/62 in Wickliffe, Kentucky.”

    Mammoth Cave National Park
    Archaeology at Mammoth Cave
    Paleoindians ‘ “Over 12,000 years ago, when huge sheets of thick glacial ice covered large portions of the North American continent, small
    nomadic groups of people wandered over the Kentucky landscape. Today, archeologists refer to these early American people
    as PaleoIndians, which means “ancient Indians.” However, we know very little about them.”


    Pipestone National Monument
    “…is located in Pipestone,
    MN, near the South Dakota border. Within the monument, there
    are pipestone (Catlinite) quarries, native tallgrass prairie,
    quartzite bluffs, and a creek with a waterfall. The first
    act to establish the monument was approved on August 25,
    1937 with approximately 116 acres of land.”

      Pipestone Indian Shrine Association
      “Operates as a cooperating association which provides personnel to perform
      cultural demonstrations of pipemaking, as well as small craft and beadworking.
      This craftwork and select books are sold within the cultural center.”


    The Grand Village of the Natchez Indians
    “A National Historic Landmark administered by the Mississippi
    Department of Archives and History in Natchez, Mississippi. The site was the main ceremonial mound center
    for the Natchez Indian tribe during the French colonial period in the Natchez area (1682 – 1730). Today, the
    Natchez Indians are known through archaeology and through the wealth of colonial documents written by
    French priests, explorers, merchants, and military personnel.”


    Chief Plenty Coups State Park
    Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks
    “Situated within the Crow Reservation in south central Montana, this park was the home
    of Plenty Coups, last chief of the Crow,. Plenty Coups’ log home and store remain as
    evidence of the chief’s efforts to lead his people in adopting the lifestyle of the white man. ”


    America’s Stonehenge
    A 4 Season Adventure In Eco Archaeology
    “What is America’s Stonehenge? America’s Stonehenge is a 4000 year old megalithic
    (stone constructed) site located on Mystery Hill in Salem NH, and presently
    serves as a leisurely, educational tour for the whole family. The complex is
    a series of stone walls containing large, shaped standing stones, which covers
    well over 30 acres. Through several independent surveys by qualified researchers,
    it has been determined that the site is an accurate, astronomically aligned
    calendar. It was, and still can be, used to determine specific solar and
    lunar events.” (Located in Salem New Hampshire.)


    Petroglyph National Monument
    “In June of 1990, the National Park Service Established Petroglyph National Monument for
    the preservation of cultural and national resources. Over seventy-one hundred acres in
    size, the Monument extends from Piedras Marcadadas Canyon in the north to Mesa Prieta
    in the south; and from the volcanoes in the west to the escarpment edge in the east.”
    Albuquerque, New Mexico


    Cades Cove
    “Prior to 1819, Cades Cove was part of the Cherokee
    Nation. The Cherokee called the cove Tsiyahi, “place of the river
    otter.” In addition to river otters, elk and eastern bison lived
    in the Cove.”

    • Cades Cove Opportunities Plan Home Page
      Looking Back ~ Moving Forward

      “The Cove was likely named for Chief Kade, of the Cherokee. Native
      Americans roamed the fertile valley in search of the abundant wildlife.”


    Spiro Mounds Archaeological Park
    ~ Spiro Library
    “Spiro Mounds, Oklahoma’s only archaeological park, is a 140-acre site
    encompassing 12 southern mounds which contain evidence of an Indian
    culture that occupied the site from 850 A.D. to 1450 A.D.
    The Mounds are considered one of the four most important prehistoric
    Indian sites east of the Rocky Mountains.”


    Serpent Mound Mysteries
    “Unravel the secrets of the
    Great Serpent Mound and associated ancient sites in Ohio
    and the eastern United States. Learn of their sacred geometry,
    system of measure, astronomical alignments, ley lines, and
    the prehistoric spiritual wisdom that they demonstrate.”

    Ohio’s East Fork or “Hanukkiah” Earthworks
    “The ancient Ohio earthworks depicted above once lay along waters
    of the East Fork of the Little Miami River, about 20 miles above its mouth near Milford, and about 25-30 miles
    east of Cincinnati. The base and left side walls were each 2000 feet long. They have long since been plowed
    level, and their orientation and exact location are unknown.”

    The Alligator Mound
    Vanishing Heritage, Planning for
    the Future of Ohio’s Past “The Alligator Mound is located
    on a prominent point at the southern extension of a long
    glaciated ridge in Licking County. For years it laid
    relatively isolated and almost forgotten. Although only
    a mile from the center of the Village of Granville few
    individuals knew of the mound’s exact location.”

    Mound City Group, Chillicothe, Ohio
    “These earthworks
    are just a few of the hundreds of mounds that can be found
    scattered across the entire eastern half of the U.S., even
    after plowing and construction have leveled countless others.”


    North Carolina Historic Sites
    Preserving the Past for All People
    “North Carolina Historic Sites, a program of 23 state historic sites, invites you to see our
    state as it was—to open doors of the past. Whether you are a resident of North Carolina,
    or just planning a visit, we have sites of interest to people of all ages.”

    Tennessee National Parks and Related Links

    TDEC: Tennessee State Parks: Historic Parks
    “Tennessee State Parks Historic Parks From prehistoric Woodland Indians
    almost 2,000 years ago at Old Stone Fort and Pinson Mounds; to one of the earliest
    British fortifications on the western frontier at Fort Loudoun; to the establishment
    of the first permanent American settlement outside the original 13 colonies at
    Sycamore Shoals; to Civil War battle sites at Fort Pillow and Johnsonville;…”

    • Chickasaw State Park
      “Chickasaw State Park is situated on some of the highest terrain in West Tennessee.
      This 14,400-acre park and forest was once part of a vast area belonging to the Chickasaw Nation prior to the
      Jackson Purchase of 1818.” Henderson, Tennessee

    • Old Stone Fort State Archaeological Park
      “The Old Stone Fort Archaeological Park is one of two sites interpreting prehistoric American Indian culture
      and mound building in the Tennessee State Park system. What is called the “Old Stone Fort” is a Woodland or
      first mound building period mound site begun 2,000 years ago.”
      Manchester, Tennessee

    • Red Clay State Historical Park
      “The events that made Red Clay famous happened between 1832 and 1838. Red Clay served as the seat of
      Cherokee government from 1832 until the forced removal of the Cherokee in 1838.”
      Cleveland, Tennessee

    • Pinson Mounds State Archaeological Area
      “The Pinson Mounds site consists of at least 12 mounds, an earthen geometric enclosure, and habitation areas,
      that cover approximately 400 acres. This site was built during what archaeologists term the Middle Woodland
      period, which ranges from about 200 BC to 500 AD.” The annual

      Archeofest Event
      , a celebration of Native American
      culture and archaeology, was held at Pinson Mounds State
      Archaeological Area in September. Pinson, Tennessee

    Pinson Mounds State Park
    “Woodland Period Indians 2000 years ago. The site consists of at least 13
    prehistoric Indian mounds, a large geometric embankment, and associated habitation
    areas. These and other mounds throughout North America were constructed by the
    ancestors of modern American Indians.”

    Nile of the New World – Lower Mississippi Valley
    “Broadly defined, the
    Delta region spans the entire lower portion of the river beginning in
    southern Illinois, covering portions of Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee,
    and including all of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.”

    • Monumental American Indian Architecture
      Mississippi Delta Monumental American Indian Architecture:
      Four thousand years ago as ancient Egyptians were erecting
      pyramids, American Indians in the Lower Mississippi Valley
      began establishing communities with large, elaborate earthen


    Caddoan Mounds State Historic Site ~ Alto Texas
    Mounds State Historic Site, a 93.8-acre park in Cherokee County
    west of Nacogdoches, was acquired in February, 1975 from Walter
    E. Gundermann, Jr. Development of facilities was completed and
    the park opened to the public in June 1982. It was the home of
    Mound Builders of Caddoan origin who lived in the region for
    500 years beginning about A.D. 800.”


    The Adena Mounds
    Grave Creek Mound State Park, Moundsville,
    West Virginia
    “About 1000 B.C. we can mark the beginning of a
    new period for man in North America. This period, which lasted
    until about 700 A.D., is called the Woodland Period. It is
    during this time that a new culture emerged and made significant
    settlements in what is now known as West Virginia.”


    Portal Wisonsin
    “While mounds can be found throughout North America,
    Wisconsin claims the largest concentration—once numbering between
    15,000-20,000, based on cataloguing efforts that date back to the
    19th century. In the Madison area alone, well over 1,000 existed.
    Near Wisconsin Dells on Highway 16, Toth leads an effort to restore
    the Kingsley Bend mound group.”

    Make the Journey
    : “Selected Mound Sites Open to the Public

    Source: Indian Mounds of Wisconsin by Robert A. Birmingham and

    Leslie E. Eisenberg. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.”



    Ontario Parks
    “Welcome to the Ontario Parks website where you can
    electronically explore one of the best park systems in the
    world. You can plan your next outdoors vacation, take virtual
    park tours, study a map of Algonquin canoe routes and much more.”



    New Parks North
    “This annual newsletter provides brief status
    reports on projects concerning the establishment and development
    of new parks, related heritage areas and other conservation initiatives
    in northern Canada. Aboriginal land claims remain a key factor in the
    establishment of parks and other protected areas.”

    “An Official Publication of
    the Archaeological Institute of America.”

    • Redating Serpent Mound
      “New radiocarbon dates suggest
      that Serpent Mound, a one-quarter-mile-long earthen

      effigy of a snake in south-central Ohio, was built
      as many as 2,000 years later than previously thought.”
      By the Archaeological Institute of America
      News Briefs Volume 49 Number 6 November/December 1996

    National Parks Magazine
    ~*~ Just For Fun!

    “Since 1942, National Parks, the award-winning magazine

    of NPCA, has examined critical national park issues and

    explored our wondrous National Park System with its

    captivating articles and spectacular photography.”

    Mounds Of The Sourtheast
    “Cherokee Saying:

    If you are not ignorant then there is no excuse.

    Of Southeastern Native American Mounds and Burials”


    National NAGPRA
    “National NAGPRA assists the Secretary of the Interior with some of the Secretary’s
    responsibilities under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and focuses
    on NAGPRA implementation outside of the National Park System. National NAGPRA is a program
    of the National Park Service’s National Center for Cultural Resources.”

    • National NAGPRA Database
      “Documents related to the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act
      are organized in the five categories. The dates following a document indicates
      its publication date. The date following a directory (shown in capital letters)
      indicates when the last item in the list was last updated. Two directories under
      the Notice category contain numerous documents. A search engine is now available
      in each Notice directory to facilitate finding a document by specific tribe,
      museum, or other keyword.”

    • Native American Consultation Database
      “NACD is a tool for
      identifying consultation contacts for each Indian tribe, Alaska
      Native corporation, and Native Hawaiian organization. The database
      is not a comprehensive source of information, but it does provide
      a starting point for the consultation process by identifying tribal
      leaders and NAGPRA contacts.”

    • NAGPRA Tribal Contact List Updated November 15, 1994

      NAGPRA Guidance: “List of Tribal, Native Alaskan Entity,

      and Native Hawaiian Organization Contacts (Memorandum).”

    Indian Burial And Sacred Grounds Watch
    “The Indian Burial and Sacred Grounds Watch web site exists as a tool for purveying and
    disseminating news on relevant issues which may appear on the internet and email lists. Its
    purpose is not to duplicate the efforts of others but hopefully to assist in the directing of
    individuals to items of interest.” Get involved,
    to the Indian Burial Grounds Action Group e-mail list
    “dedicated to issues relevant to Indian Burial Grounds
    and their Protection.”
    For more information contact, Juli Kearns.

    Seeking Sites Afar ~ Point Of Reference

    Featuring Archaeology And History

    • NAGPRA
      “Issues, information, laws and bibliographies for
      archaeologists, anthropologists, and all Native Americans
      including Native Alaskans and Native Hawaiians.”

    American Indian Ritual Object Repatriation Foundation

    An Intercultural Partnership‘ “We are a non-federally funded intercultural partnership
    committed to assisting in the return of sacred ceremonial material
    to the appropriate American Indian Nation, clan, or family, and to educating the public
    about the importance of repatriation.”